Research References

Vitamin B6


  • Fox, C., Ramsoomair, D., & Carter, C. (2001). Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J, 94(12),
  • Slutsky, I., Abumaria, N., Wu, L., Huang, C., Zhang, L., Li, B., Zhao, X., Govindarajan, A., Zhao, M., Zhuo, M., Tonegawa, S., Liu, G. (2010). Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron, 28(65),
  • Nielsen, F., Johnson, L.K., & Zeng, H. (2010). Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Magnes Res, 23(4),
  • Held, K., Antonijevic, I.A., Künzel, H., Uhr, M., Wetter, T.C., Golly, I.C., Steiger, A., & Murck, H. (2002). Oral Mg (2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35(4),
  • De Souza, M.C. Walker, A.F., Robinson, P.A., & Bolland, K. (2004). A Synergistic Effect of a Daily Supplement for 1 Month of 200 mg Magnesium plus 50 mg Vitamin B6 for the Relief of Anxiety-Related
    Premenstrual Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study. Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 9(2),
  • Fathizadeh, N., Ebrahimi, E., Valiani, M., Tavakoli, N., & Yar, M.H. (2010). Evaluating the effect of magnesium and magnesium plus vitamin
    B6 supplements on the severity of premenstrual syndrome. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 15(Suppl1),
  • Brilla, L.R. & Haley, T.F. (2013). Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11(3),
  • Setaro, L., Santos-Silva, P.R., Nakano, E.Y., Sakes, C.H., Nunes, N., Greve, J.M., et al. (2014). Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(5),


  • Haase, H., Mocchegiani, E., & Rink, L. (2006). Correlation between zinc status and immune function in the elderly. Biogerontology, 7,
  • Siahbazi, S., Behboudi-Gandevani, S., Moghaddam-Banaem, L., & Montazeri, A. (2017). Effect of zinc sulfate supplementation on premenstrual syndrom and health-related quality of life: Clinical randomized controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res., 43(5),
  • Godfrey, J.C., Sloane, B.C., Smith, D.S., Turco, J.H., Mercer, N., & Godfrey, N.J. (1992). Zinc gluconate and the common cold: a controlled clinical study. J Int Med Res, 20(3),
  • Mossad, S.B., Macknin, M.L., Medendorp, S.V., & Mason, P. (1996). Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Intern Med, 125(2),
  • Prasad, A.S., Fitzgerald, J.T., Bao, B., Beck, F.W., Chandrasekar, & P.H. (2000). Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med., 133(4),
  • Prasad, A.S., Beck, F.W.J., Bao, B., Snell, D., & Fitsgerald, J.T. (2008). Duration and severity of symptoms and levels
    of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis
    factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold
    treated with zinc acetate. J Infect Dis, 197(6),
  • Turner, R.B. & Cetnarowski, W.E. (2000). Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Clin Infect Dis, 31(5),
  • Hemilä, H., Haukka, J., Alho, M., Vahtera, J., & Kivimäki, M. (2020). Zinc acetate lozenges for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open, 10(1),
  • Siahbazi, S., Behboudi-Gandevani, S., Moghaddam-Banaem, L., Montazeri, A. (2017). Effect of zinc sulfate supplementation on
    premenstrual syndrome and health-related quality of life: Clinical randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research,
  • Eby, G. (2007). Zinc treatment prevents dysmenorrhea. Medical Hypotheses, 69(2),
  • Kilic, M., Baltaci, A.K., & Gunay, M. Effect of zinc supplementation of hematological parameters in athletes. Biological Trace Element Research, 100,

White Willow Bark

  • Shara, M. & Stohs, S.J. (2015). Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts. Phytother Res., 29(8),
  • Oketch-Rabah, H.A., Marles, R.J., Jordan, S.A., Low Dog, T. (2019). United States Pharmacopeia Safety Review of Willow Bark. Planta Med, 85(16),
  • Vlachojannis, J.E., Cameron, M., & Chrubasik, S. (2009). A systematic review on the effectiveness of willow bark for musculoskeletal pain. Phytother Res., 23(7),
  • Chrubasik, S., Eisenberg, E., Balan, E., Weinberger, T., Luzzati, R., & Conradt, C. (2000). Treatment of low
    back pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study. The American journal of medicine, 109(1),
  • Oltean, H., Robbins, C., van Tulder, M. W., Berman, B. M., Bombardier, C., & Gagnier, J. J. (2014). Herbal medicine for low-back pain. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2014(12),


  • Lopresti, A. L., Drummond, P. D., Inarejos-García, A. M., & Prodanov, M. (2018). affron®,
    a standardised extract from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of youth anxiety and depressive symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of affective disorders, 232,
  • Ahmadpanah, M., Ramezanshams, F., Ghaleiha,
    A., Akhondzadeh, S., Sadeghi Bahmani, D., & Brand, S. (2019). Crocus Sativus L. (saffron) versus sertraline on symptoms of depression among older people with major depressive disorders-a double-blind, randomized
    intervention study. Psychiatry research, 282,
  • Ghajar, A., Neishabouri, S. M., Velayati, N., Jahangard, L., Matinnia, N., Haghighi, M., Ghaleiha, A., Afarideh, M.,
    Salimi, S., Meysamie, A., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2017). Crocus sativus L. versus Citalopram in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder with Anxious Distress: A Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry, 50(4),
  • Marx, W., Lane, M., Rocks, T., Ruusunen, A., Loughman, A., Lopresti, A., Marshall, S., Berk, M., Jacka, F., & Dean, O. M. (2019). Effect of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews, nuz023. Advance online publication.
  • Lopresti, A.L., Smith, S.J., Metse, A.P., Drummond, P.D. (2020). Effects of saffron on sleep quality in healthy adults with self-reported poor sleep: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, J of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 16(6),
  • Kell, G., Rao, A., Beccaria, G., Clayton, P., Inarejos-García, A.M., & Prodanov, M. (2017). affron® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 33,
  • Agha-Hosseini, M., Kashani, L., Aleyaseen, A., Ghoreishi, A., Rahmanpour, H., Zarrinara, A. R., & Akhondzadeh, S. (2008). Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 115(4),
  • Maleki-Saghooni, N., Karimi, F. Z., Behboodi Moghadam, Z., & Mirzaii Najmabadi, K. (2018). The effectiveness and
    safety of Iranian herbal medicines for treatment of premenstrual syndrome: A systematic review. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine, 8(2),
  • Dante, G., & Facchinetti, F. (2011). Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review. Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology, 32(1),


  • Dante, G., & Facchinetti, F. (2011). Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review. Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology, 32(1),
  • Lauritzen, C., Reuter, H. D., Repges, R., Böhnert, K. J., & Schmidt, U. (1997). Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 4(3),
  • Berger, D., Schaffner, W., Schrader, E., Meier, B., & Brattström, A. (2000). Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 264(3),
  • Momoeda, M., Sasaki, H., Tagashira, E., Ogishima, M., Takano, Y., & Ochiai, K. (2014). Efficacy and safety of Vitex agnus-castus extract for treatment of premenstrual syndrome in Japanese patients: a prospective, open-label study. Advances in therapy, 31(3),
  • Schellenberg, R., Zimmermann, C., Drewe, J.,
    Hoexter, G., & Zahner, C. (2012). Dose-dependent efficacy of the Vitex agnus castus extract Ze 440 in patients suffering from
    premenstrual syndrome. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 19(14),
  • Schellenberg, R. (2001). Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ, 322(134),
  • Ambrosini, A., Di Lorenzo, C., Coppola, G., & Pierelli, F. (2013). Use of Vitex agnus-castus in migrainous women
    with premenstrual syndrome: an open-label clinical observation. Acta neurologica Belgica, 113(1),
  • Ma, L., Lin, S., Chen, R., Zhang, Y., Chen, F., & Wang, X. (2010). Evaluating therapeutic effect in symptoms of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women. The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology, 50(2),
  • Zamani, M., Neghab, N., & Torabian, S. (2012). Therapeutic effect of Vitex agnus castus in patients with
    premenstrual syndrome. Acta medica Iranica, 50(2),


  • Jurenka J. S. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic, 14(2),
  • Esmaily, H., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Ganjali, S., Mohammadi, A., Ferns, G., & Ghayour-Mobarhan, M.
    (2015). An investigation of the effects of curcumin on anxiety and depression in obese individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Chinese journal of integrative medicine, 21(5),
  • Lopresti, A. L., Hood, S. D., & Drummond, P. D. (2012). Multiple antidepressant potential modes of action of
    curcumin: a review of its anti-inflammatory, monoaminergic, antioxidant, immune-modulating and neuroprotective effects. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 26(12),
  • Sanmukhani, J., Satodia, V., Trivedi, J., Patel, T., Tiwari, D., Panchal, B., Goel, A., & Tripathi, C. B. (2014). Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a
    randomized controlled trial. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 28(4),
  • Agarwal, K. A., Tripathi, C. D., Agarwal, B. B., & Saluja, S. (2011). Efficacy of turmeric (curcumin) in pain and
    postoperative fatigue after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a
    double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Surgical endoscopy, 25(12),
  • Akazawa, N., Choi, Y., Miyaki, A., Tanabe, Y., Sugawara, J., Ajisaka, R., & Maeda, S. (2012). Curcumin
    ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in
    postmenopausal women. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.), 32(10),
  • Aggarwal B. B. (2010). Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals. Annual review of nutrition, 30,
  • Holt, P. R., Katz, S., & Kirshoff, R. (2005). Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Digestive diseases and sciences, 50(11),
  • Koosirirat, C., Linpisarn, S., Changsom, D.,
    Chawansuntati, K., & Wipasa, J. (2010). Investigation of the
    anti-inflammatory effect of Curcuma longa in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. International immunopharmacology, 10(7),
  • Madhu, K., Chanda, K., & Saji, M. J. (2013). Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology, 21(2),
  • Srivastava, S., Saksena, A. K., Khattri, S., Kumar, S., & Dagur, R. S. (2016). Curcuma longa extract reduces
    inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in osteoarthritis of knee: a four-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology, 24(6),
  • Oliver, J. M., Stoner, L., Rowlands, D. S., Caldwell, A. R., Sanders, E., Kreutzer, A., Mitchell, J. B., Purpura,
    M., & Jäger, R. (2016). Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, 2016,
  • Campbell, M. S., Carlini, N. A., & Fleenor, B. S. (2021). Influence of curcumin on performance and post-exercise recovery. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 61(7),
  • Suhett, L. G., de Miranda Monteiro Santos,
    R., Silveira, B. K. S., Leal, A. C. G., de Brito, A. D. M., de Novaes, J. F., & Lucia, C. M. D. (2021). Effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise: a systematic review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 61(6),
  • Fanaei, H., Khayat, S., Kasaeian, A., &
    Javadimehr, M. (2016). Effect of curcumin on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with premenstrual syndrome: A
    randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neuropeptides, 56,
  • Khayat, S., Fanaei, H., Kheirkhah, M.,
    Moghadam, Z. B., Kasaeian, A., & Javadimehr, M. (2015). Curcumin attenuates severity of premenstrual syndrome symptoms: A randomized,
    double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 23(3),


  • Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., & Madsen, M. R. (2006). Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and
    physical work in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Clinical endocrinology, 65(2),
  • Childs, E., & de Wit, H. (2006).
    Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology, 185(4),
  • Shechter, M., Shalmon, G., Scheinowitz, M.,
    Koren-Morag, N., Feinberg, M. S., Harats, D., Sela, B. A., Sharabi, Y., & Chouraqui, P. (2011). Impact of acute caffeine ingestion on
    endothelial function in subjects with and without coronary artery disease. The American journal of cardiology, 107(9),
  • Rogers, P. J., Hohoff, C., Heatherley, S. V., Mullings, E. L., Maxfield, P. J., Evershed, R. P., Deckert, J., & Nutt, D. J. (2010). Association of the anxiogenic and alerting effects of caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 polymorphisms and habitual level of caffeine consumption. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 35(9),
  • Borota, D., Murray, E., Keceli, G., Chang, A., Watabe, J. M., Ly, M., Toscano, J. P., & Yassa, M. A. (2014). Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature neuroscience, 17(2),
  • Dulloo, A. G., Geissler, C. A., Horton, T., Collins, A., & Miller, D. S. (1989). Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 49(1),
  • Doherty, M. & Smith, P.M. (2005). Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 15(2).
  • Purdue-Smithe, A. C., Manson, J. E.,
    Hankinson, S. E., & Bertone-Johnson, E. R. (2016). A prospective study of caffeine and coffee intake and premenstrual syndrome. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 104(2),
  • Rossignol, A. M., & Bonnlander, H. (1990). Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and
    premenstrual syndrome. American journal of public health, 80(9),


  • Darbinyan, V., Kteyan, A., Panossian, A., Gabrielian, E., Wikman, G., & Wagner, H. (2000). Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the
    mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 7(5),
  • Darbinyan, V., Aslanyan, G., Amroyan, E., Gabrielyan, E., Malmström, C., & Panossian, A. (2007). Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5),
  • Shevtsov, V. A., Zholus, B. I., Shervarly, V. I., Vol'skij, V. B., Korovin, Y. P., Khristich, M. P., Roslyakova, N. A., & Wikman, G. (2003). A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 10(2-3),
  • Jówko, E., Sadowski, J., Długołęcka, B., Gierczuk, D., Opaszowski, B., & Cieśliński, I. (2018). Effects of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on mental performance, physical capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy men. Journal of sport and health science, 7(4),
  • Cropley, M., Banks, A. P., & Boyle, J. (2015). The Effects of Rhodiola rosea L. Extract on Anxiety, Stress, Cognition and Other Mood Symptoms. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 29(12),
  • Lu, Y., Deng, B., Xu, L., Liu, H., Song, Y., & Lin, F. (2022). Effects of Rhodiola Rosea Supplementation on
    Exercise and Sport: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in nutrition, 9,
  • Tinsley, G. M., Jagim, A. R., Potter, G. D. M., Garner, D., & Galpin, A. J. (2023). Rhodiola rosea as an adaptogen to enhance exercise performance: a review of the literature. The British journal of nutrition, 1–13. Advance online publication.

Black Pepper

  • Shoba, G., Joy, D., Joseph, T., Majeed, M., Rajendran, R., & Srinivas, P. S. (1998). Influence of piperine on
    the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta medica, 64(4),
  • Srinivasan K. (2007). Black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 47(8),
  • Hosseini, H., Ghavidel, F., Panahi, G., Majeed, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2023). A systematic review and
    meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of the curcumin and piperine combination on lipid profile in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders. Phytotherapy research : PTR, 37(3),
  • Mirhafez, S. R., Dehabeh, M., Hariri, M., Farimani, A. R., Movahedi, A., Naderan, R. D., Jamialahmadi, T.,
    Simental-Mendía, L. E., & Sahebkar, A. (2021). Curcumin and Piperine Combination for the Treatment of Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty
    Liver Disease: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1328,


  • Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Belury, M.A., Andridge, R., Malarkey, W.B., & Glaser, R. (2011). Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: A randomized controlled trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(8),
  • Bauer, I., Hughes, M., Rowsell, R., Cockerell, R., Pipingas, Crewther, S., & Crewther, D. (2014). Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical & Experimental,
  • McCabe, D., Lisy, K., Lockwood, C., &
    Colbeck, M. (2017). The impact of essential fatty acid, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation on stress levels in women:a systematic review. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, 15(2),
  • Horrobin D. F. (1983). The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. The Journal of reproductive medicine, 28(7),
  • Mohammadi, M. M., Dehghan Nayeri, N., Mashhadi, M., & Varaei, S. (2022). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on
    premenstrual syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research, 48(6),
  • Kyriakidou, Y., Wood, C., Ferrier, C., Dolci, A., & Elliott, B. (2021). The effect of Omega-3 polyunsaturated
    fatty acid supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18(1),
  • Gammone, M. A., Riccioni, G., Parrinello, G., & D'Orazio, N. (2018). Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids:
    Benefits and Endpoints in Sport. Nutrients, 11(1),
  • Jeromson, S., Gallagher, I. J., Galloway, S. D., & Hamilton, D. L. (2015). Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health. Marine drugs, 13(11),
  • Cornish, S. M., Cordingley, D. M., Shaw, K. A., Forbes, S. C., Leonhardt, T., Bristol, A., Candow, D. G., & Chilibeck, P. D. (2022). Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation Alone and
    Combined with Resistance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients, 14(11),